By Alexander Crummell
An important 19th-century reformer and highbrow, Alexander Crummell (1819-1898) used to be the 1st black American to obtain a level from Cambridge collage. Upon commencement, he sailed to Liberia, the place from 1853 to 1872 he labored as a farmer, educator, small enterprise operator, and Episcopal missionary. Returning to the US in 1873, he demonstrated St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., serving as its pastor until eventually 1894. Crummell remained energetic within the black group all through his later years and in 1897 based the yankee Negro Academy, which he meant as a problem to the ability of Booker T. Washington's accommodationist philosophy. all through his lengthy lifestyles, Crummell was once a prolific, occasionally debatable, and sometimes acerbic author. His pioneering paintings on black nationalism, black self-determination, and Pan-Americanism prompted many African-American leaders of his day, together with W.E.B. Du Bois, who committed a bankruptcy to Crummell in "The Souls of Black Folk". Crummell's surviving papers comprise over four hundred sermons and political essays and a voluminous correspondence. regardless of his significance to American and African-American heritage, Crummell is little recognized this day. apart from the facsimile reprints of 2 of his books within the Sixties, there were no sleek printings of his paintings. This quantity is meant to revive Crummell's voice and to instructed a reevaluation of his writings.
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